Difference between revisions of "Booting Windows using coreboot"

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{{Cc-by-sa-3.0}}
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<div style="margin-top:0.5em; padding:0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em; background-color:#ffdfdf; align:right; border:1px solid #aabbcc;">
=== Why Windows? ===
+
Although this article mentions ADLO, ADLO has been superseded by [[SeaBIOS]] which supports more recent Windows versions out of the box. Please read the [[SeaBIOS]] instructions if you want to boot Windows.
 +
 
 +
This page is outdated! The [[SeaBIOS]] page explains what you need.
 +
</div>
  
LinuxBIOS itself has many positive aspects that should be made widely available. In order to make LinuxBIOS a very strong alternative firmware for PC's we cannot afford not considering support for windows since it owns about 90% in the PC market.
 
  
 
=== Project Overview ===
 
=== Project Overview ===
  
This project was accepted for the Google Summer Of Code 2007 and its main goal is to figure out how to boot Windows Vista/XP/2003. There is not a chosen approach to achieve that. Having a dedicated LinuxBIOS loader is the most desired solution but since some success has been reported using [http://www.linuxbios.org/ADLO ADLO], it has been chosen in this phase of understanding better the problem.
+
This project was accepted for the Google Summer Of Code 2007 and its main goal is to figure out how to boot Windows Vista/XP/2003. There is not a chosen approach to achieve that. Having a dedicated coreboot loader is the most desired solution but since some success has been reported using [http://www.coreboot.org/ADLO ADLO], it has been chosen in this phase of understanding better the problem.
  
 
Instead of a real hardware, [http://qemu.org/ QEMU] emulator will be used since it is easily available for anyone who wishes to contribute.
 
Instead of a real hardware, [http://qemu.org/ QEMU] emulator will be used since it is easily available for anyone who wishes to contribute.
Line 12: Line 14:
 
I intend to describe in detailed all the steps taken up to now and some of the problems faced. My first goal is to repeat the stages to boot windows 2000 described in the paper entitled [http://www.usenix.org/events/usenix03/tech/freenix03/agnew/agnew_html/index.html/ Flexibility in ROM: A Stackable Open Source BIOS]. After that, we will focus on windows XP and Vista that require a more complicated support.
 
I intend to describe in detailed all the steps taken up to now and some of the problems faced. My first goal is to repeat the stages to boot windows 2000 described in the paper entitled [http://www.usenix.org/events/usenix03/tech/freenix03/agnew/agnew_html/index.html/ Flexibility in ROM: A Stackable Open Source BIOS]. After that, we will focus on windows XP and Vista that require a more complicated support.
  
Any suggestion is welcome, please use the [[Mailinglist|LinuxBIOS mailing list]] or email [mailto:augusto.pedroza@gmail.com Augusto Pedroza].
+
Any suggestion is welcome, please use the [[Mailinglist|coreboot mailing list]] or email [mailto:augusto.pedroza@gmail.com Augusto Pedroza].
  
 
=== Requirements ===   
 
=== Requirements ===   
Line 18: Line 20:
 
The following software packages are needed:
 
The following software packages are needed:
  
* [[Download_LinuxBIOS|LinuxBIOSv3]]
+
* [[Download_coreboot|coreboot v3]]
* [http://www.linuxbios.org/ADLO ADLO]  
+
* [http://www.coreboot.org/ADLO ADLO]  
 
* [http://qemu.org/ QEMU] 0.9.0 or greater
 
* [http://qemu.org/ QEMU] 0.9.0 or greater
* [http://www.cix.co.uk/~mayday/ as86] 80x86 assembler
+
* [http://homepage.ntlworld.com/robert.debath/dev86/as86-0.16.17.tar.gz as86] 80x86 assembler
  
 
plus a working development environment (make, gcc, etc.). gcc verions 4.0.x and 4.1.x work fine except for QEMU, which requires gcc 3.x.
 
plus a working development environment (make, gcc, etc.). gcc verions 4.0.x and 4.1.x work fine except for QEMU, which requires gcc 3.x.
 
  
 
== Installing Qemu ==
 
== Installing Qemu ==
Line 45: Line 46:
 
Configure and make QEMU (use the --cc option if your default gcc is newer than version 3.4):
 
Configure and make QEMU (use the --cc option if your default gcc is newer than version 3.4):
 
  If you need some bios debug messages from qemu add --extra-cflags="-DDEBUG_BIOS" to the configuration line below.  
 
  If you need some bios debug messages from qemu add --extra-cflags="-DDEBUG_BIOS" to the configuration line below.  
  Since LinuxBIOS already outputs debug messages without this option, turning it on will mess Qemu output error  
+
  Since coreboot already outputs debug messages without this option, turning it on will mess Qemu output error  
 
  messages. It is useful for some situations though.
 
  messages. It is useful for some situations though.
  
 +
Download these two patches and save them in the QEMU source directory:
 +
* [http://xenon.stanford.edu/~eswierk/misc/qemu-linuxbios/qemu-isa-bios-ram.patch qemu-isa-bios-ram.patch]
 +
* [http://xenon.stanford.edu/~eswierk/misc/qemu-linuxbios/qemu-piix-ram-size.patch qemu-piix-ram-size.patch]
 +
 +
Apply the patches and configure QEMU using the following:
 +
$ patch -p1 < qemu-isa-bios-ram.patch
 +
$ patch -p1 < qemu-piix-ram-size.patch
 
  $ ./configure --cc=/opt/gcc34/bin/gcc --target-list=i386-softmmu && make
 
  $ ./configure --cc=/opt/gcc34/bin/gcc --target-list=i386-softmmu && make
 
  $ make install
 
  $ make install
Line 53: Line 61:
 
The QEMU binary is stored in the i386-softmmu directory.
 
The QEMU binary is stored in the i386-softmmu directory.
  
 +
== Building ADLO payload (coreboot v2) ==
 +
'''IMPORTANT: This step is necessary only if using coreboot v2. If using coreboot v2 go to section ''Building coreboot v3'''''
  
== Building ADLO payload ==
 
 
First, download ADLO's source code.
 
First, download ADLO's source code.
  $ svn co svn://linuxbios.org/repos/trunk/LinuxBIOSv2/
+
  $ svn co svn://coreboot.org/repos/trunk/coreboot-v2
'''APPLY PATCH SENT TO LINUXBIOS MAILING LIST!'''
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'''APPLY PATCH SENT TO COREBOOT MAILING LIST!'''
  
Go to LinuxBIOSv2 directory:
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Download and install [http://homepage.ntlworld.com/robert.debath/dev86/as86-0.16.17.tar.gz as86]:
  $ cd LinuxBIOSv2/
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  $ tar xzvf as86-0.16.17.tar.gz
  # patch -p1 < xpboot.diff
+
  $ cd as86-0.16.17/
 
  $ make
 
  $ make
Check the [http://tracker.linuxbios.org/trac/LinuxBIOS/browser/trunk/LinuxBIOSv2/util/ADLO/README README] file to see some information about installing as86 + patch in order to compile bochs' bios. You can also get a [http://www.cix.co.uk/~mayday/ prepatched version] of as86. I downloaded the newest version and patched it.
+
$ make install
 +
Go to coreboot v2 directory:
 +
$ cd coreboot-v2
 +
$ patch -p1 < xpboot.diff
 +
$ cd util/ADLO
 +
$ make
 +
 
 
After running ''make'', a file named ''payload'' will be generated.
 
After running ''make'', a file named ''payload'' will be generated.
  
== Building LinuxBIOSv3 ==
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== Building coreboot v2 ==
Now it is time to build linuxBIOSv3.
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Now it is time to build coreboot.
 +
$ cd coreboot-v2/targets/emulation/qemu-i386
 +
You should edit the Config.lb file, where it says payload put the path of the file generated by ADLO. It should look like this:
 +
* payload path/to/adlo/payload
 +
Return to targets directory and execute:
 +
$ ./buildtarget emulation/qemu-i386
 +
Go to targets/emulation/qemu-i386/qemu-i386 and execute:
 +
$ make
 +
 
 +
This creates the coreboot image (qemu-bios.rom).  Copy this file to a specific folder and rename it to bios.bin.
 +
 
 +
== Building coreboot v3 ==
 +
Now it is time to build coreboot v3.
 
You should first download it:
 
You should first download it:
  $ svn co svn://linuxbios.org/repository/LinuxBIOSv3
+
  $ svn co svn://coreboot.org/repository/coreboot-v3
  $ cd LinuxBIOSv3/
+
  $ cd coreboot-v3/util
 +
$ svn co svn://coreboot.org/repos/trunk/coreboot-v2/util/ADLO
 +
$ Apply patch that puts ADLO into coreboot-v3
 
  $ make menuconfig
 
  $ make menuconfig
 
There are few options that should be enabled:
 
There are few options that should be enabled:
 
  Mainboard->Mainboard vendor->Emulated Systems  
 
  Mainboard->Mainboard vendor->Emulated Systems  
 
  Mainboard->Mainboard model->QEMU x86
 
  Mainboard->Mainboard model->QEMU x86
  Payload->An ELF executable payload file
+
  Payload->An ADLO payload file
  Payload->Payload path and filename->Set the Path to ADLO's payload generated in the previous step
+
   
 
Exit and when asked to generate a config file say yes. After, execute:
 
Exit and when asked to generate a config file say yes. After, execute:
 
  $ make  
 
  $ make  
  
This creates a LinuxBIOS image named /build/bios.bin. Copy this file to a specific folder. I will call this folder 'LinuxBIOS_bios/'
+
This creates a coreboot image named /build/bios.bin. Copy this file to a specific folder. I will call this folder 'coreboot_bios/'
 
+
  
 
== Creating an Appropriate Disk Image ==
 
== Creating an Appropriate Disk Image ==
Line 89: Line 117:
 
  $ qemu-img create -f qcow /path/to/win.cow 2000M
 
  $ qemu-img create -f qcow /path/to/win.cow 2000M
  
Insert the installation CD, and install Windows 2000/XP in the QEMU image. During the installation process you can choose whether ACPI support is desired. This is done pressing F7 or F5 during the screen with the message "press F6 if you need to install a SCSI or RAID controller" on the bottom. F7 lets windows choose the most appropriate option. F5 shows all the available options so the user can choose. I have tested a win2k, a winXP image with no ACPI and a win2k image with ACPI support.
+
Insert the installation CD, and install Windows 2000/XP in the QEMU image. During the installation process you can choose whether ACPI support is desired. This is done pressing F7 or F5 during the screen with the message "press F6 if you need to install a SCSI or RAID controller" on the bottom. F7 lets windows choose the most appropriate option. F5 shows all the available options so the user can choose. I have successfully tested a win2k and a winXP images with and without ACPI support on.
  
  
Windows seems to be very sensitive to BIOS changes. I got the following error when installing windows with QEMU default BIOS and later trying to run it using LinuxBIOS:
+
Windows seems to be very sensitive to BIOS changes. I got the following error when installing windows with QEMU default BIOS and later trying to run it using coreboot:
 
'''*** STOP: 0x0000007B (0xF781B84C,0xC0000034,0x00000000,0x00000000) INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE''' [http://www.biermann.org/philipp/STOP_0x0000007B/].
 
'''*** STOP: 0x0000007B (0xF781B84C,0xC0000034,0x00000000,0x00000000) INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE''' [http://www.biermann.org/philipp/STOP_0x0000007B/].
  
Line 98: Line 126:
  
  
Before executing the next command, copy a file named ''vgabios-cirrus.bin'' to the same folder where the ''bios.bin'' file is, in my case, LinuxBIOS_bios/. This file can be found in the qemu directory at ''qemu-0.9.0/pc-bios''.
+
Before executing the next command, copy a file named ''vgabios-cirrus.bin'' to the same folder where the ''bios.bin'' file is, in my case, coreboot_bios/. This file can be found in the qemu directory at ''qemu-0.9.0/pc-bios''.
 
Then run:
 
Then run:
  $ qemu -L path/to/LinuxBIOS_bios/ -hda /path/to/win.cow -boot d -cdrom /dev/cdrom -m 384 -localtime
+
  $ qemu -L path/to/coreboot_bios/ -hda /path/to/win.cow -boot d -cdrom /dev/cdrom -m 384 -localtime
 
The ''-L'' option allows us to inform the path for BIOS, VGA BIOS.  
 
The ''-L'' option allows us to inform the path for BIOS, VGA BIOS.  
 
This step takes a lot longer than installing windows on a Hard Disk.
 
This step takes a lot longer than installing windows on a Hard Disk.
Line 107: Line 135:
  
 
Just execute this:
 
Just execute this:
  $ qemu -L path/to/LinuxBIOS_bios/ -hda win.cow
+
  $ qemu -L path/to/coreboot_bios/ -hda win.cow
  
 
I get the following errors due to interrupt calls:
 
I get the following errors due to interrupt calls:
Line 120: Line 148:
 
  int13 function 08 -> Get Drive Parameters
 
  int13 function 08 -> Get Drive Parameters
  
Even though some keyboard error messages are displayed, the keyboard works correctly with LinuxBIOSv3 (It has a wrong behavior with LinuxBIOSv2):
+
Even though some keyboard error messages are displayed, the keyboard works correctly with coreboot v3 (It has a wrong behavior with coreboot v2):
  
 
  KBD: int09h_handler(): unknown scancode read: 0x72!
 
  KBD: int09h_handler(): unknown scancode read: 0x72!
Line 127: Line 155:
  
 
'''Just wait the boot process and ... enjoy it!!'''
 
'''Just wait the boot process and ... enjoy it!!'''
 +
 +
[http://www.coreboot.org/data/windowsxp.mpeg Video: Booting Windows XP - Play it using ffmpeg]
 +
 +
[http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-128280635889471288&hl=en  Mirror of Video on Google: Booting Windows XP]
  
 
== Debugging using GDB ==
 
== Debugging using GDB ==
Line 133: Line 165:
 
  qemu-0.9.0$ ./configure --cc=/opt/gcc34/bin/gcc --target-list=i386-softmmu && make
 
  qemu-0.9.0$ ./configure --cc=/opt/gcc34/bin/gcc --target-list=i386-softmmu && make
 
  qemu-0.9.0/i386-softmmu$ gdb qemu
 
  qemu-0.9.0/i386-softmmu$ gdb qemu
  (gdb) set args -L path/to/LinuxBIOS_bios/ -hda path/to/win2k.cow
+
  (gdb) set args -L path/to/coreboot_bios/ -hda path/to/win2k.cow
 
  (gdb) break main
 
  (gdb) break main
 
  (gdb) run
 
  (gdb) run
Line 144: Line 176:
 
* [http://www.h7.dion.ne.jp/~qemu-win/DebuggingTips-en.html/ Debbuging QEMU with GDB]
 
* [http://www.h7.dion.ne.jp/~qemu-win/DebuggingTips-en.html/ Debbuging QEMU with GDB]
 
* [http://www.hermann-uwe.de/blog/howto-install-windows-xp-in-debian-using-qemu/ Creating Windows QEMU images]
 
* [http://www.hermann-uwe.de/blog/howto-install-windows-xp-in-debian-using-qemu/ Creating Windows QEMU images]
 +
 +
{{Cc-by-sa-3.0}}

Latest revision as of 22:29, 26 September 2009

Although this article mentions ADLO, ADLO has been superseded by SeaBIOS which supports more recent Windows versions out of the box. Please read the SeaBIOS instructions if you want to boot Windows.

This page is outdated! The SeaBIOS page explains what you need.


Project Overview

This project was accepted for the Google Summer Of Code 2007 and its main goal is to figure out how to boot Windows Vista/XP/2003. There is not a chosen approach to achieve that. Having a dedicated coreboot loader is the most desired solution but since some success has been reported using ADLO, it has been chosen in this phase of understanding better the problem.

Instead of a real hardware, QEMU emulator will be used since it is easily available for anyone who wishes to contribute.

I intend to describe in detailed all the steps taken up to now and some of the problems faced. My first goal is to repeat the stages to boot windows 2000 described in the paper entitled Flexibility in ROM: A Stackable Open Source BIOS. After that, we will focus on windows XP and Vista that require a more complicated support.

Any suggestion is welcome, please use the coreboot mailing list or email Augusto Pedroza.

Requirements

The following software packages are needed:

plus a working development environment (make, gcc, etc.). gcc verions 4.0.x and 4.1.x work fine except for QEMU, which requires gcc 3.x.

Installing Qemu

In order to build QEMU from source gcc 3.x. is required. If you use a different version of gcc, take a look at the following section.

Building gcc 3.x

$ wget ftp://ftp.mirrorservice.org/sites/sources.redhat.com/pub/gcc/releases/gcc-3.4.6/gcc-3.4.6.tar.gz
$ tar zxvf gcc-3.4.6.tar.gz
$ cd gcc-3.4.6/
$ ./configure --prefix=/opt/gcc34 
$ make bootstrap
$ make install (as root)

Building QEMU

Download QEMU source code (I used qemu-0.9.0.tar.gz) and extract it.

$ tar -xzvf qemu-0.9.0.tar.gz
$ cd qemu-0.9.0/

Configure and make QEMU (use the --cc option if your default gcc is newer than version 3.4):

If you need some bios debug messages from qemu add --extra-cflags="-DDEBUG_BIOS" to the configuration line below. 
Since coreboot already outputs debug messages without this option, turning it on will mess Qemu output error 
messages. It is useful for some situations though.

Download these two patches and save them in the QEMU source directory:

Apply the patches and configure QEMU using the following:

$ patch -p1 < qemu-isa-bios-ram.patch
$ patch -p1 < qemu-piix-ram-size.patch
$ ./configure --cc=/opt/gcc34/bin/gcc --target-list=i386-softmmu && make
$ make install

The QEMU binary is stored in the i386-softmmu directory.

Building ADLO payload (coreboot v2)

IMPORTANT: This step is necessary only if using coreboot v2. If using coreboot v2 go to section Building coreboot v3

First, download ADLO's source code.

$ svn co svn://coreboot.org/repos/trunk/coreboot-v2

APPLY PATCH SENT TO COREBOOT MAILING LIST!

Download and install as86:

$ tar xzvf as86-0.16.17.tar.gz
$ cd as86-0.16.17/
$ make
$ make install

Go to coreboot v2 directory:

$ cd coreboot-v2
$ patch -p1 < xpboot.diff
$ cd util/ADLO
$ make

After running make, a file named payload will be generated.

Building coreboot v2

Now it is time to build coreboot.

$ cd coreboot-v2/targets/emulation/qemu-i386

You should edit the Config.lb file, where it says payload put the path of the file generated by ADLO. It should look like this:

  • payload path/to/adlo/payload

Return to targets directory and execute:

$ ./buildtarget emulation/qemu-i386 

Go to targets/emulation/qemu-i386/qemu-i386 and execute:

$ make 

This creates the coreboot image (qemu-bios.rom). Copy this file to a specific folder and rename it to bios.bin.

Building coreboot v3

Now it is time to build coreboot v3. You should first download it:

$ svn co svn://coreboot.org/repository/coreboot-v3
$ cd coreboot-v3/util
$ svn co svn://coreboot.org/repos/trunk/coreboot-v2/util/ADLO
$ Apply patch that puts ADLO into coreboot-v3
$ make menuconfig

There are few options that should be enabled:

Mainboard->Mainboard vendor->Emulated Systems 
Mainboard->Mainboard model->QEMU x86
Payload->An ADLO payload file

Exit and when asked to generate a config file say yes. After, execute:

$ make 

This creates a coreboot image named /build/bios.bin. Copy this file to a specific folder. I will call this folder 'coreboot_bios/'

Creating an Appropriate Disk Image

Installing Windows

There are few options to create an image, I chose to use the qemu-img tool. Create an image no smaller than 1.2GB to avoid any kind of problems during windows installation. The qcow format is very appropriate because will only take up as much space as is really needed. Since I wanted to install a small version of linux, I created an image of 2GB.

$ qemu-img create -f qcow /path/to/win.cow 2000M

Insert the installation CD, and install Windows 2000/XP in the QEMU image. During the installation process you can choose whether ACPI support is desired. This is done pressing F7 or F5 during the screen with the message "press F6 if you need to install a SCSI or RAID controller" on the bottom. F7 lets windows choose the most appropriate option. F5 shows all the available options so the user can choose. I have successfully tested a win2k and a winXP images with and without ACPI support on.


Windows seems to be very sensitive to BIOS changes. I got the following error when installing windows with QEMU default BIOS and later trying to run it using coreboot: *** STOP: 0x0000007B (0xF781B84C,0xC0000034,0x00000000,0x00000000) INACCESSIBLE_BOOT_DEVICE [1].

So, the BIOS used during windows installation should be the same as the one that will be used to run windows.


Before executing the next command, copy a file named vgabios-cirrus.bin to the same folder where the bios.bin file is, in my case, coreboot_bios/. This file can be found in the qemu directory at qemu-0.9.0/pc-bios. Then run:

$ qemu -L path/to/coreboot_bios/ -hda /path/to/win.cow -boot d -cdrom /dev/cdrom -m 384 -localtime

The -L option allows us to inform the path for BIOS, VGA BIOS. This step takes a lot longer than installing windows on a Hard Disk.

Booting Windows

Just execute this:

$ qemu -L path/to/coreboot_bios/ -hda win.cow

I get the following errors due to interrupt calls:

int13_harddisk: function 41, unmapped device for ELDL=81
int13_harddisk: function 08, unmapped device for ELDL=81
*** int 15h function AX=00C0, BX=0000 not yet supported!
*** int 15h function AX=5300, BX=0000 not yet supported!
int13 function 41 -> (with BX = 55AAh) is a check for the "Installation of the INT 13 
                     BIOS Extensions" in Memory.                                     
int13 function 08 -> Get Drive Parameters

Even though some keyboard error messages are displayed, the keyboard works correctly with coreboot v3 (It has a wrong behavior with coreboot v2):

KBD: int09h_handler(): unknown scancode read: 0x72!
KBD: int09h_handler(): unknown scancode read: 0x75!
KBD: int09h_handler(): unknown scancode read: 0x74!

Just wait the boot process and ... enjoy it!!

Video: Booting Windows XP - Play it using ffmpeg

Mirror of Video on Google: Booting Windows XP

Debugging using GDB

Recompile qemu with this patch in order to disable timer interrupts.

qemu-0.9.0$ patch -p0 <../qemu-20061108-debug-on-linux.patch 
qemu-0.9.0$ ./configure --cc=/opt/gcc34/bin/gcc --target-list=i386-softmmu && make
qemu-0.9.0/i386-softmmu$ gdb qemu
(gdb) set args -L path/to/coreboot_bios/ -hda path/to/win2k.cow
(gdb) break main
(gdb) run


Now that we are able to boot windows 2000 and XP, we will work hard on getting windows Vista soon.

Useful Links

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