Difference between revisions of "Development Guidelines"

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= Development Environment =
 
= Development Environment =
 +
 
== Required Toolchain ==
 
== Required Toolchain ==
 +
 +
The easiest way to get a working toolchain is to run <code>make crossgcc</code> in the toplevel directory of a coreboot checkout. Linux distributions usually modify their compilers in ways incompatible with coreboot. If in doubt, use our toolchain.
 +
 +
The toolchain consists of:
 
* GNU development environment:
 
* GNU development environment:
** [http://gcc.gnu.org/ GCC] (tested: 4.1.2 prerelease)
+
** [http://gcc.gnu.org/ GCC with G++]
** [http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/devel/binutils/ binutils] (tested: 2.17.50.0.5)
+
** [http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/devel/binutils/ binutils]
* Python (tested: 2.4, 2.5)
+
* libncurses*-dev
* bash (tested: 3.0, 3.1)
+
* [http://www.acpica.org/downloads/ IASL], now part of the '''ACPICA''' download (package ''pmtools'' or ''iasl'' in many distributions)
* [http://www.intel.com/technology/iapc/acpi/downloads.htm IASL] (package ''pmtools'' or ''iasl'')
+
* [http://atrey.karlin.mff.cuni.cz/~mj/pciutils.shtml pciutils-devel/pciutils-dev]
+
  
 
= Coding Guidelines =
 
= Coding Guidelines =
 +
 
== General Guidelines ==
 
== General Guidelines ==
 +
 
* Encapsulate and isolate assembly language
 
* Encapsulate and isolate assembly language
 
* Code shall not be "commented out"
 
* Code shall not be "commented out"
Line 24: Line 29:
  
 
== Comments ==
 
== Comments ==
 +
 
=== References ===
 
=== References ===
 +
 
If you are referencing a data sheet or other documentation in the code, please add the name or document number in addition to the URL. Vendors just ''love'' to rearrange their websites (and some remove documentation on their old products altogether)! If we have the name/number (or even just the filename of the PDF) at least there's a chance to google for it again (either on the vendor's site or on some archive).
 
If you are referencing a data sheet or other documentation in the code, please add the name or document number in addition to the URL. Vendors just ''love'' to rearrange their websites (and some remove documentation on their old products altogether)! If we have the name/number (or even just the filename of the PDF) at least there's a chance to google for it again (either on the vendor's site or on some archive).
  
 
== Coding Style ==
 
== Coding Style ==
* We use the [http://lxr.linux.no/source/Documentation/CodingStyle Linux kernel coding style] for LinuxBIOS.
+
 
 +
* We use the [http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=blob;f=Documentation/CodingStyle;hb=HEAD Linux kernel coding style] for coreboot.
 
* You can use the 'indent' tool to fix the coding style like this:
 
* You can use the 'indent' tool to fix the coding style like this:
 
  indent -npro -kr -i8 -ts8 -sob -l80 -ss -ncs *.[ch]
 
  indent -npro -kr -i8 -ts8 -sob -l80 -ss -ncs *.[ch]
 
:Do not trust 'indent' blindly, though. It sometimes gets things wrong. Manual corrections may be required.
 
:Do not trust 'indent' blindly, though. It sometimes gets things wrong. Manual corrections may be required.
 +
 +
== The 80 character limit ==
 +
 +
Lines larger than 80 columns should be broken down into readable pieces. This includes not only source files, but also Makefiles, Kconfig files, and any file meant to be edited by a human. We recommend setting your editor to show the 80th character limit.
 +
This limit is not a relic from long forgotten times, but a very practical and efficient way to organize code and increase productivity. Several files can be edited on the same monitor, without the need to side-scroll. Side-scrolling source files is inefficient, time-consuming, and uncomfortable. On average, 95% of source lines are shorter than 80 characters, so limiting the line length is this manner is not only _not_ an impediment, it also gets you to think on how to best organize the code.
  
 
= Documentation Guidelines =
 
= Documentation Guidelines =
 +
 
== General Guidelines and Tips ==
 
== General Guidelines and Tips ==
 +
 
* Documentation should be put into the wiki and/or in the code as Doxygen comments
 
* Documentation should be put into the wiki and/or in the code as Doxygen comments
 
* Avoid using different styles and looks of documentation
 
* Avoid using different styles and looks of documentation
* Document ''what'', not ''how'' (No comments like ''// add one to i'')
+
* Document ''why'' and ''what'', not ''how'' (No comments like ''/* add one to i */'')
 
* Document assumptions, stipulations etc...
 
* Document assumptions, stipulations etc...
 
* Document design and concepts!
 
* Document design and concepts!
Line 45: Line 60:
  
 
== Automatic documentation ==
 
== Automatic documentation ==
* Doxygen-generated API- and code documentation is available at http://qa.linuxbios.org/docs/. This documentation is updated on every 10th checkin.
+
 
 +
* Doxygen-generated API- and code documentation is available at http://qa.coreboot.org/docs/. This documentation is updated on every 10th checkin.
 
* To create a Doxygen comment, write
 
* To create a Doxygen comment, write
 
  /**
 
  /**
Line 72: Line 88:
 
= Testing =
 
= Testing =
  
Every commit will be processed by the autobuild and autotest system available at http://qa.linuxbios.org/. In addition please run autobuild yourself before submitting  
+
Every commit will be processed by the autobuild and autotest system available at http://qa.coreboot.org/. In addition please run autobuild yourself before submitting patches.
patches.
+
  
 
== autobuild ==
 
== autobuild ==
  
Autobuild can be found at [http://tracker.linuxbios.org/trac/LinuxBIOS/browser/trunk/LinuxBIOSv2/util/abuild/abuild LinuxBIOSv2/util/abuild].  
+
Autobuild can be found at [http://review.coreboot.org/gitweb?p=coreboot.git;a=tree;f=util/abuild;hb=HEAD coreboot/util/abuild].  
  
Please run ''abuild'' '''before''' you commit.  
+
Please run ''abuild'' '''before''' you commit.
  
Autobuild is also running on every check-in to the repository and sending result mails to the LinuxBIOS [[Mailinglist|mailing list]]. The results of this build are also available at http://qa.linuxbios.org/ in the ''build'' section of each revision.
+
Autobuild is also running on every check-in to the repository. The results of this build are also available at http://qa.coreboot.org/.
  
 
== autotest ==
 
== autotest ==
  
Each revision is also tested with an automated test system: http://qa.linuxbios.org/overview.php?tested=1. If you developed LinuxBIOS for a certain mainboard or wish to help improving LinuxBIOS' quality by running the testsuite on one of your mainboards, please contact [mailto:info@coresystems.de info@coresystems.de].
+
We can also run automatic tests on boards, if we find contributors willing to have a board automatically managed by our QA system. This requires a permanent connection to the net, a host system and some special circuitry. If interested, please contact us using the [[Mailinglist|mailing list]].
  
 
= How to contribute =
 
= How to contribute =
Line 91: Line 106:
 
== Creating Patches ==
 
== Creating Patches ==
  
* '''Always use a checkout of the latest svn revision of the code'''. Patches that do not apply on the latest svn revision will be rejected!
+
* We use gerrit for change management, using the instance on http://review.coreboot.org/
 +
* While not necessary with gerrit, '''make sure that your change is against current master'''. Patches that fail on merge (after some developer looked at it and approved it) might linger around until '''you''' update it.
 +
* Rebase, if necessary, '''then test''' again. You might be the only contributor with that specific mainboard.
 
* Make sure all new and modified files contain the [[Development Guidelines#Common_License_Header|proper license headers]] (see below).
 
* Make sure all new and modified files contain the [[Development Guidelines#Common_License_Header|proper license headers]] (see below).
* If your patch is supposed to add new files, please add them to your local repository before creating a diff. Use
+
* Make sure all added files are actually within the commit.
svn add path/to/file
+
* Make one commit per logical change.
* Create your patches by executing the following command in the top-level LinuxBIOSv2 directory:
+
* For more details on using gerrit, see our [[Git]] documentation. Things are somewhat different (eg. it's normal to rebase changes that were already pushed).
svn diff > ~/some_descriptive_name.patch
+
* Double-check that your changes are correct, and that the commit only contains what you think it contains.
* Open the patch in a text-editor and double-check that your changes are correct, and that the patch only contains what you think it contains.
+
  
 
== Sign-off Procedure ==
 
== Sign-off Procedure ==
  
We employ a similar sign-off procedure for LinuxBIOS [http://osdlab.org/newsroom/press_releases/2004/2004_05_24_dco.html as the Linux developers] do.
+
We employ a similar sign-off procedure for coreboot
 +
[http://web.archive.org/web/20070306195036/http://osdlab.org/newsroom/press_releases/2004/2004_05_24_dco.html as the Linux developers] do.
 
Please add a note such as
 
Please add a note such as
 
  Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
 
  Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
 
to your email/patch if you agree with the following Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1.
 
to your email/patch if you agree with the following Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1.
  
Patches without a Signed-off-by cannot be committed!
+
Patches without a Signed-off-by cannot be pushed to gerrit!
 +
 
 +
<span style="color:red">You have to use your real name in the Signed-off-by line and in any copyright notices you add.</span> Patches without an associated real name cannot be committed!
  
 
'''Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1:'''
 
'''Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1:'''
Line 126: Line 145:
 
  open source license indicated in the file.
 
  open source license indicated in the file.
  
<small>Note: The [http://osdlab.org/newsroom/press_releases/2004/2004_05_24_dco.html Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1] is licensed under the terms of the [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License].</small>
+
<small>Note: The [http://web.archive.org/web/20070306195036/http://osdlab.org/newsroom/press_releases/2004/2004_05_24_dco.html Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1] is licensed under the terms of the [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License].</small>
  
 
== Reviews ==
 
== Reviews ==
  
* Send your patch to the [[Mailinglist|mailing list]] for review. Changes that impact a lot of code should also be documented in the [http://tracker.linuxbios.org/trac/LinuxBIOS/ issue tracker].
+
* Send your patch to [[Git|gerrit]] for review.
** Start the email with a detailed description of what the patch does and why. This text will usually end up in the commit logs so don't clutter it with useless stuff which should not go into the commit message.
+
** Provide useful commit messages. Explain what the change does and why. Our short intro to [[Git|git]] explains the format in more detail.
** Add a single line containing your "[[Development Guidelines#Sign-off_Procedure|sign-off]]" after the description of the patch.
+
** Add a single line containing your "[[Development Guidelines#Sign-off_Procedure|sign-off]]" after the description of the patch (<code>git commit -s</code> helps, but make sure you understand and comply with the DCO).
 
*** Example: ''Signed-off-by: John Doe <john@example.com>''
 
*** Example: ''Signed-off-by: John Doe <john@example.com>''
** Add a single line which only contains "---". Everything which comes after that line will not be included in the commit message.
+
* The developers will review and/or test your change and send comments or suggestions. Please push updated patches as described in "[[Git#Evolving_patches|evolving patches]]".
* The developers on the mailing list will review and/or test your patch and send comments or suggestions. Please post updated patches to the mailing list again.
+
* If the change looks ok to one or more developers, they will approve and submit it to the master branch.
* If the patch looks ok to one or more developers, they will reply to your mail with an Acked-by: line.
+
** Example: ''Acked-by: John Doe <john@example.com>''
+
* Every non-trivial patch must get at least one Acked-by: by another developer before it can be commited.
+
** Exception: if you are fixing '''trivial''' things like a typo in a comment, you may specify your own name and email address in the Acked-by: field, and add the word "trivial" in the commit description (in '''addition''' to the commit description).
+
 
+
== Repository Commits ==
+
 
+
Commits to the LinuxBIOS subversion repository have to be done with a commit comment. This may be short, but descriptive:
+
 
+
* If anyone involved in LinuxBIOS reads your comment in a year, she/he shall still be able to understand what your commit is about, without analyzing the code.
+
* Double-check that you're really committing what you think you are, e.g. by typing the following in the top-level LinuxBIOSv2 directory:
+
svn diff | less
+
* Include the following information in the svn commit message:
+
** The description from the email containing the patch.
+
** All Signed-off-by: and Acked-by: lines your patch received.
+
** Reference or close bugs which are fixed by the commit, or are related to it. See [[Development Guidelines#How_to_close_Trac_issues_automatically_via_email|below]] for details.
+
  
 
= Bug-Tracker =
 
= Bug-Tracker =
  
== Where is the LinuxBIOS bug tracker? ==
+
'''note: the bug tracker is dead. more or less.'''
 
+
It is available at http://tracker.linuxbios.org/. Log in with your svn username and password if you have one.
+
 
+
== Why do we use a bug tracker? ==
+
 
+
We want a standardized interface for keeping track of open issues. The [[Mailinglist|mailing list]] is fine for discussion, but long standing issues, plans, goals, milestones can not be tracked there in a sufficient manner. There is no means of quality control via the mailing list.
+
 
+
Therefore changes that impact a lot of code '''must''' be documented in the bug tracker. Also, please document bugs in the tracker.
+
 
+
== How can I close Trac issues automatically via svn commits? ==
+
 
+
It searches commit messages for text in the form of:
+
* command #1
+
* command #1, #2
+
* command #1 & #2
+
* command #1 and #2<br />
+
 
+
You can have more then one command in a message. The following commands
+
are supported. There is more then one spelling for each command, to make
+
this as user-friendly as possible.<br />
+
* closes, fixes
+
  The specified issue numbers are closed with the contents of this
+
  commit message being added to it.
+
* references, refs, addresses, re
+
  The specified issue numbers are left in their current status, but
+
  the contents of this commit message are added to their notes.<br />
+
A fairly complicated example of what you can do is with a commit message of:<br />
+
    Changed blah and foo to do this or that. Fixes #10 and #12, and refs #12.<br />
+
This will close #10 and #12, and add a note to #12.
+
  
 
= License Issues =
 
= License Issues =
Line 207: Line 181:
  
 
  /*
 
  /*
   * This file is part of the LinuxBIOS project.
+
   * This file is part of the coreboot project.
 
   *
 
   *
 
   * Copyright (C) 2003-2005 John Doe <john@example.com>
 
   * Copyright (C) 2003-2005 John Doe <john@example.com>
Line 233: Line 207:
  
 
  ##
 
  ##
  ## This file is part of the LinuxBIOS project.
+
  ## This file is part of the coreboot project.
 
  ##
 
  ##
 
  ## Copyright (C) 2003-2005 John Doe <john@example.com>
 
  ## Copyright (C) 2003-2005 John Doe <john@example.com>

Revision as of 10:47, 4 September 2012

Development Environment

Required Toolchain

The easiest way to get a working toolchain is to run make crossgcc in the toplevel directory of a coreboot checkout. Linux distributions usually modify their compilers in ways incompatible with coreboot. If in doubt, use our toolchain.

The toolchain consists of:

  • GNU development environment:
  • libncurses*-dev
  • IASL, now part of the ACPICA download (package pmtools or iasl in many distributions)

Coding Guidelines

General Guidelines

  • Encapsulate and isolate assembly language
  • Code shall not be "commented out"
  • No use of floating-point arithmetics
  • No hiding of identifiers defined in outer scopes
  • Typedefs are unique (device_t?)
  • Functions shall have prototype declarations
  • Local functions should be declared static
  • No definitions in header files
  • All variables are assigned before use
  • All objects should have fully qualified types (unsigned int instead of unsigned)
  • We suggest trying to import more such rules, such as additional ones described in MISRA-C 2004 (Guidelines for the use of C in critical systems)

Comments

References

If you are referencing a data sheet or other documentation in the code, please add the name or document number in addition to the URL. Vendors just love to rearrange their websites (and some remove documentation on their old products altogether)! If we have the name/number (or even just the filename of the PDF) at least there's a chance to google for it again (either on the vendor's site or on some archive).

Coding Style

indent -npro -kr -i8 -ts8 -sob -l80 -ss -ncs *.[ch]
Do not trust 'indent' blindly, though. It sometimes gets things wrong. Manual corrections may be required.

The 80 character limit

Lines larger than 80 columns should be broken down into readable pieces. This includes not only source files, but also Makefiles, Kconfig files, and any file meant to be edited by a human. We recommend setting your editor to show the 80th character limit. This limit is not a relic from long forgotten times, but a very practical and efficient way to organize code and increase productivity. Several files can be edited on the same monitor, without the need to side-scroll. Side-scrolling source files is inefficient, time-consuming, and uncomfortable. On average, 95% of source lines are shorter than 80 characters, so limiting the line length is this manner is not only _not_ an impediment, it also gets you to think on how to best organize the code.

Documentation Guidelines

General Guidelines and Tips

  • Documentation should be put into the wiki and/or in the code as Doxygen comments
  • Avoid using different styles and looks of documentation
  • Document why and what, not how (No comments like /* add one to i */)
  • Document assumptions, stipulations etc...
  • Document design and concepts!
  • Not lots of documentation but good documentation
  • Structured documentation
  • Focus: Whom are you addressing in your documentation? Write documentation for users, developers, vendors, ...

Automatic documentation

  • Doxygen-generated API- and code documentation is available at http://qa.coreboot.org/docs/. This documentation is updated on every 10th checkin.
  • To create a Doxygen comment, write
/**
 * Sample comment.
 */
or
/** Sample comment. */
  • There are a few commands that describe what kind of comment you are adding:
@param — input parameters of a function
@return — return value of a function

Full example:

/**
 * Calculate the length of a string.
 *
 * @param str The input string.
 * @return The length of the string, not including the final NUL character.
 */
static inline size_t strlen(const char *str)
{
        /* ... */
}

Testing

Every commit will be processed by the autobuild and autotest system available at http://qa.coreboot.org/. In addition please run autobuild yourself before submitting patches.

autobuild

Autobuild can be found at coreboot/util/abuild.

Please run abuild before you commit.

Autobuild is also running on every check-in to the repository. The results of this build are also available at http://qa.coreboot.org/.

autotest

We can also run automatic tests on boards, if we find contributors willing to have a board automatically managed by our QA system. This requires a permanent connection to the net, a host system and some special circuitry. If interested, please contact us using the mailing list.

How to contribute

Creating Patches

  • We use gerrit for change management, using the instance on http://review.coreboot.org/
  • While not necessary with gerrit, make sure that your change is against current master. Patches that fail on merge (after some developer looked at it and approved it) might linger around until you update it.
  • Rebase, if necessary, then test again. You might be the only contributor with that specific mainboard.
  • Make sure all new and modified files contain the proper license headers (see below).
  • Make sure all added files are actually within the commit.
  • Make one commit per logical change.
  • For more details on using gerrit, see our Git documentation. Things are somewhat different (eg. it's normal to rebase changes that were already pushed).
  • Double-check that your changes are correct, and that the commit only contains what you think it contains.

Sign-off Procedure

We employ a similar sign-off procedure for coreboot as the Linux developers do. Please add a note such as

Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>

to your email/patch if you agree with the following Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1.

Patches without a Signed-off-by cannot be pushed to gerrit!

You have to use your real name in the Signed-off-by line and in any copyright notices you add. Patches without an associated real name cannot be committed!

Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1:

By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:
(a) The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I have the right to submit it under the open source license indicated in the file; or
(b) The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source license and I have the right under that license to submit that work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part by me, under the same open source license (unless I am permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated in the file; or
(c) The contribution was provided directly to me by some other person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified it; and
(d) In the case of each of (a), (b), or (c), I understand and agree that this project and the contribution are public and that a record of the contribution (including all personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with this project or the open source license indicated in the file.

Note: The Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1 is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License.

Reviews

  • Send your patch to gerrit for review.
    • Provide useful commit messages. Explain what the change does and why. Our short intro to git explains the format in more detail.
    • Add a single line containing your "sign-off" after the description of the patch (git commit -s helps, but make sure you understand and comply with the DCO).
      • Example: Signed-off-by: John Doe <john@example.com>
  • The developers will review and/or test your change and send comments or suggestions. Please push updated patches as described in "evolving patches".
  • If the change looks ok to one or more developers, they will approve and submit it to the master branch.

Bug-Tracker

note: the bug tracker is dead. more or less.

License Issues

  • Contributed code must be GPL'd (preferrably 'GPLv2 or any later version', but 'GPLv2' is fine, too). At the very minimum the code must have a GPL-compatible license.

Common License Header

Please quote the full GPL license header text in every file, as shown below. It should contain:

  • The year(s) when the code was written or modified and a copyright note of you (or your company, if you are contributing as part of your employment, and thus the copyright belongs to your company). Also, please provide an email address so that you can be contacted if questions arise.
    • Example:
Copyright (C) 2006 John Doe <john@example.com>
Copyright (C) 2004-2006 Company, Inc.
  • An extra line which lists the author of the code, if the copyright holder is not the same as the author (e.g. if you work for a company and the company owns the copyright).
    • Example:
Copyright (C) 2004-2006 Company, Inc.
(Written by Janet Doe <janet@example.com> for Company, Inc.)
  • The full GPL header as shown below.

Complete example for *.c and *.h files:

/*
 * This file is part of the coreboot project.
 *
 * Copyright (C) 2003-2005 John Doe <john@example.com>
 * Copyright (C) 2005 Jane Doe <jane@example.com>
 * Copyright (C) 2006 Company, Inc.
 * (Written by Janet Doe <janet@example.com> for Company, Inc.)
 * Copyright (C) 2007 Joe Doe <joe@example.com>
 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301 USA
 */

Complete example for Makefiles, config files, Python files, shell scripts etc.:

##
## This file is part of the coreboot project.
##
## Copyright (C) 2003-2005 John Doe <john@example.com>
## Copyright (C) 2005 Jane Doe <jane@example.com>
## Copyright (C) 2006 Company, Inc.
## (Written by Janet Doe <janet@example.com> for Company, Inc.)
## Copyright (C) 2007 Joe Doe <joe@example.com>
##
## This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
## it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
## the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
## (at your option) any later version.
##
## This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
## but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
## MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
## GNU General Public License for more details.
##
## You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
## along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
## Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301 USA
##