Difference between revisions of "Glossary"

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Line 29: Line 29:
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/booting
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/booting
 
------------------------------------------
 
------------------------------------------
I2C - Inter-Integrated-Circuit, a bidirectional 2-wire bus for efficient
+
'''I2C''' - Inter-Integrated-Circuit, a bidirectional 2-wire bus for efficient
 
inter-IC control. See 'http://www.esacademy.com/faq/i2c/index.htm' for
 
inter-IC control. See 'http://www.esacademy.com/faq/i2c/index.htm' for
 
more info.
 
more info.
Line 35: Line 35:
 
Code examples(?): ...
 
Code examples(?): ...
 
------------------------------------------
 
------------------------------------------
VID - Vendor ID, a way of identifying the hardware manufacturer. See
+
'''VID''' - Vendor ID, a way of identifying the hardware manufacturer. See
 
'http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/bus/PCI/infreq.mspx' and
 
'http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/bus/PCI/infreq.mspx' and
 
'http://pciids.sourceforge.net/'
 
'http://pciids.sourceforge.net/'
Line 44: Line 44:
 
more verbose output.
 
more verbose output.
 
------------------------------------------
 
------------------------------------------
DID - Device ID, a way of identifying the hardware in question. See VID
+
'''DID''' - Device ID, a way of identifying the hardware in question. See VID
 
(above) for more info.
 
(above) for more info.
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
DMA (Direct Memory Access) allows certain hardware subsystems within a
+
'''DMA''' (Direct Memory Access) allows certain hardware subsystems within a
 
computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently
 
computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently
 
of the main CPU. Examples of systems that use DMA: Hard Disk Controller,
 
of the main CPU. Examples of systems that use DMA: Hard Disk Controller,
Line 57: Line 57:
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/direct%20memory%20access
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/direct%20memory%20access
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access) is a concept whereby two or more
+
'''RDMA''' (Remote Direct Memory Access) is a concept whereby two or more
 
computers communicate via DMA directly from main memory of one system to
 
computers communicate via DMA directly from main memory of one system to
 
the main memory of another.
 
the main memory of another.
Line 73: Line 73:
 
http://www.eecg.utoronto.ca/~singhd/241/vgacon.htm
 
http://www.eecg.utoronto.ca/~singhd/241/vgacon.htm
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
AHCI (Advanced Host Controller Interface). Describes the register-level
+
'''AHCI''' (Advanced Host Controller Interface). Describes the register-level
 
interface for a SATA host controller.
 
interface for a SATA host controller.
  
Line 79: Line 79:
 
http://www.intel.com/technology/serialata/ahci.htm
 
http://www.intel.com/technology/serialata/ahci.htm
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
OHCI (Open Host Controller Interface). IEEE1394 (Firewire) and
+
'''OHCI''' (Open Host Controller Interface). IEEE1394 (Firewire) and
 
USB standard (mostly used by other companies than Intel)
 
USB standard (mostly used by other companies than Intel)
  
Line 85: Line 85:
 
http://developer.intel.com/technology/1394/download/ohci_11.htm
 
http://developer.intel.com/technology/1394/download/ohci_11.htm
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
UHCI (Universal Host Controller Interface). USB standard.
+
'''UHCI''' (Universal Host Controller Interface). USB standard.
  
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/dict.asp?Word=uhci
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/dict.asp?Word=uhci
 
http://developer.intel.com/technology/usb/uhci11d.htm
 
http://developer.intel.com/technology/usb/uhci11d.htm
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface Bus) is a very loose standard for
+
'''SPI''' (Serial Peripheral Interface Bus) is a very loose standard for
 
controlling almost any digital electronics that accepts a clocked serial
 
controlling almost any digital electronics that accepts a clocked serial
 
stream of bits.
 
stream of bits.
Line 97: Line 97:
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Peripheral_Interface_Bus
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Peripheral_Interface_Bus
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
SIO (Serial Input/Output)
+
'''SIO''' (Serial Input/Output)
  
 
http://www.acronymfinder.com/af-query.asp?String=off&Acronym=sio&Find=Find&sourceid=mozilla-search----------------------------------------------------
 
http://www.acronymfinder.com/af-query.asp?String=off&Acronym=sio&Find=Find&sourceid=mozilla-search----------------------------------------------------
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(Relevant???? -- http://www.interq.or.jp/japan/se-inoue/e_pic1.htm)
 
(Relevant???? -- http://www.interq.or.jp/japan/se-inoue/e_pic1.htm)
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
PLL (Phase Locked Loop) is a device to keep (electrical) signals synchronised
+
'''PLL''' (Phase Locked Loop) is a device to keep (electrical) signals synchronised
 
throughout the system.
 
throughout the system.
  
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PLL
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PLL
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
SuperIO is (usually?) the chip that provides floppy, serial and parallel
+
'''SuperIO''' is the chip that provides floppy, serial and parallel
 
functionality/ports.
 
functionality/ports.
  
 
http://www.simtec.co.uk/products/EB7500ATX/files/EB7500ATX-mmap.html
 
http://www.simtec.co.uk/products/EB7500ATX/files/EB7500ATX-mmap.html
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
SPD (Serial Presence Detect). On every (?) memory module there's
+
'''SPD''' (Serial Presence Detect). On every (?) memory module there's
 
an eprom that provides BIOS with information on how to properly
 
an eprom that provides BIOS with information on how to properly
 
configure the memory module.
 
configure the memory module.
Line 123: Line 123:
 
http://www.simmtester.com/page/news/showpubnews.asp?num=101
 
http://www.simmtester.com/page/news/showpubnews.asp?num=101
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
SMBus (System Management Bus) is a simple two-wire bus used for
+
'''SMB'''us (System Management Bus) is a simple two-wire bus used for
 
communication with low-bandwidth devices on a motherboard. It is
 
communication with low-bandwidth devices on a motherboard. It is
 
based on (actually a subset of) I2C.
 
based on (actually a subset of) I2C.
Line 131: Line 131:
 
See I2C for more info.
 
See I2C for more info.
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
ACPI (Advanced Configuration & Power Interface) is an industry standard
+
'''ACPI''' (Advanced Configuration & Power Interface) is an industry standard
 
for letting the OS control power management.
 
for letting the OS control power management.
  
Line 137: Line 137:
 
http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=Advanced%20Configuration%20and%20Power%20Interface
 
http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=Advanced%20Configuration%20and%20Power%20Interface
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller). An advanced version of
+
'''APIC''' (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller). An advanced version of
 
a PIC that can handle interrupts from and for multiple CPUs.
 
a PIC that can handle interrupts from and for multiple CPUs.
  
Line 143: Line 143:
 
http://osdev.berlios.de/pic.html
 
http://osdev.berlios.de/pic.html
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
VMEBus (VERSAmodule Eurocard Bus OR Versa Module Europa Bus). A computer bus
+
'''VME'''Bus (VERSAmodule Eurocard Bus OR Versa Module Europa Bus). A computer bus
 
originally developed for the Motorola 68000.
 
originally developed for the Motorola 68000.
  
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/VMEbus
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/VMEbus
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect).
+
'''PCI''' (Peripheral Component Interconnect).
  
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/PCI
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/PCI
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
PCI Configuration Space.
+
'''PCI Configuration Space'''.
  
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/PCI%20Configuration%20Space
 
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/PCI%20Configuration%20Space
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
PIRQ (Pci IRQ routing table).
+
'''PIRQ''' (Pci IRQ routing table).
  
 
http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/archive/pciirq.mspx
 
http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/archive/pciirq.mspx
Line 166: Line 166:
 
PAM (Programmable Attribute Map).
 
PAM (Programmable Attribute Map).
  
???
+
 
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
SMM (System Management Mode) or
+
SMM  
    (Shared Memory Module)  or
+
    (Shared Memory Multiprocessor)
+
???
+
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
SMRAM (System Management Random Access Memory).
 
SMRAM (System Management Random Access Memory).
  
???
+
 
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
MPTable (Multi Processor Table). Intel MP specification is a hardware
+
'''MPTable''' (Multi Processor Table). Intel MP specification is a hardware
 
compatibility guide for machine hardware designers and OS software
 
compatibility guide for machine hardware designers and OS software
 
writers to produce SMP-capable machines and OSes in a vendor-independent manner.
 
writers to produce SMP-capable machines and OSes in a vendor-independent manner.
Line 189: Line 186:
 
PIR
 
PIR
  
???
+
 
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
DCR (Decode Control Register)
 
DCR (Decode Control Register)
  
???
+
 
 
----------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------------------------------------

Revision as of 14:32, 11 March 2005

Glossary

This page is a work in progress

MMIO (Memory-mapped I/O) and port I/O (also called port-mapped I/O or PMIO) are two complementary methods of performing input/output between the CPU and I/O devices in a computer.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/mmio


PIO (Programmed Input/Output) interface is the original method used to transfer data between the CPU (through the IDE controller) and an IDE/ATA device.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/pio


The Framebuffer is a part of RAM in a computer allocated to hold the graphics information for one frame or picture. This information typically consists of color values for every pixel on the screen. A framebuffer is either:

  • Off-screen, meaning that writes to the framebuffer don't appear on the visible screen
  • On-screen, meaning that the framebuffer is directly coupled to the visible display

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/framebuffer


POST (Power On Self Test) is a test to check that devices the computer will rely on are functioning, and initializes devices.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/booting


I2C - Inter-Integrated-Circuit, a bidirectional 2-wire bus for efficient inter-IC control. See 'http://www.esacademy.com/faq/i2c/index.htm' for more info.

Code examples(?): ...


VID - Vendor ID, a way of identifying the hardware manufacturer. See 'http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/bus/PCI/infreq.mspx' and 'http://pciids.sourceforge.net/' for more info.

A way of obtaining info for your hardware is through the 'lspci' command. Simply type 'lspci -n' in the console (or an xterm) or 'lspci -vn' for more verbose output.


DID - Device ID, a way of identifying the hardware in question. See VID (above) for more info.


DMA (Direct Memory Access) allows certain hardware subsystems within a computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the main CPU. Examples of systems that use DMA: Hard Disk Controller, Disk Drive Controller, Graphics Card, Sound Card. DMA is an essential feature of all modern computers, as it allows devices of different speeds to communicate without subjecting the CPU to a massive interrupt load.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/direct%20memory%20access


RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access) is a concept whereby two or more computers communicate via DMA directly from main memory of one system to the main memory of another.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Remote%20Direct%20Memory%20Access


The purpose of the VGAcon (VGA controller) is to isolate the details of VGA signal generation from all the other modules in a (hardware) design. It allows the pixel information to be written into its video memory using a very simple interface, while it is alone responsible for generating the required signals for displaying the pixel information on a VGA monitor. (Note: This is mostly relevant to a hardware design - the text is copied from a students fpga project)

http://www.eecg.utoronto.ca/~singhd/241/vgacon.htm


AHCI (Advanced Host Controller Interface). Describes the register-level interface for a SATA host controller.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ahci http://www.intel.com/technology/serialata/ahci.htm


OHCI (Open Host Controller Interface). IEEE1394 (Firewire) and USB standard (mostly used by other companies than Intel)

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ohci http://developer.intel.com/technology/1394/download/ohci_11.htm


UHCI (Universal Host Controller Interface). USB standard.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/dict.asp?Word=uhci http://developer.intel.com/technology/usb/uhci11d.htm


SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface Bus) is a very loose standard for controlling almost any digital electronics that accepts a clocked serial stream of bits.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Serial%20Peripheral%20Interface http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Peripheral_Interface_Bus


SIO (Serial Input/Output)

http://www.acronymfinder.com/af-query.asp?String=off&Acronym=sio&Find=Find&sourceid=mozilla-search---------------------------------------------------- PIC (Programmable Interrupt Controller) is a device to control peripheral devices, offloading the main CPU.

http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=programmable%20interrupt%20controller (Relevant???? -- http://www.superdroidrobots.com/pics.htm) (Relevant???? -- http://www.interq.or.jp/japan/se-inoue/e_pic1.htm)


PLL (Phase Locked Loop) is a device to keep (electrical) signals synchronised throughout the system.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PLL


SuperIO is the chip that provides floppy, serial and parallel functionality/ports.

http://www.simtec.co.uk/products/EB7500ATX/files/EB7500ATX-mmap.html


SPD (Serial Presence Detect). On every (?) memory module there's an eprom that provides BIOS with information on how to properly configure the memory module.

http://www.simmtester.com/page/news/showpubnews.asp?num=101


SMBus (System Management Bus) is a simple two-wire bus used for communication with low-bandwidth devices on a motherboard. It is based on (actually a subset of) I2C.

http://www.smbus.org/ http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=System%20Management%20Bus See I2C for more info.


ACPI (Advanced Configuration & Power Interface) is an industry standard for letting the OS control power management.

http://www.acpi.info/ http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=Advanced%20Configuration%20and%20Power%20Interface


APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller). An advanced version of a PIC that can handle interrupts from and for multiple CPUs.

http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=Advanced%20Programmable%20Interrupt%20Controller http://osdev.berlios.de/pic.html


VMEBus (VERSAmodule Eurocard Bus OR Versa Module Europa Bus). A computer bus originally developed for the Motorola 68000.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/VMEbus


PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect).

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/PCI


PCI Configuration Space.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/PCI%20Configuration%20Space


PIRQ (Pci IRQ routing table).

http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/archive/pciirq.mspx http://www.rojakpot.com/default.aspx?location=8&var1=0&var2=148 http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/jul04/articles/qa0704-1.htm Interesting tool?: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/attachment.cgi?id=93717&action=view


PAM (Programmable Attribute Map).



SMM


SMRAM (System Management Random Access Memory).



MPTable (Multi Processor Table). Intel MP specification is a hardware compatibility guide for machine hardware designers and OS software writers to produce SMP-capable machines and OSes in a vendor-independent manner. v1.1 and v1.4 versions exist.

http://www.uruk.org/~erich/mps.html http://www.intel.com/design/pentium/datashts/242016.htm



PIR



DCR (Decode Control Register)