Glossary

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Glossary

This page is a work in progress

MMIO (Memory-mapped I/O) and port I/O (also called port-mapped I/O or PMIO) are two complementary methods of performing input/output between the CPU and I/O devices in a computer.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/mmio


PIO (Programmed Input/Output) interface is the original method used to transfer data between the CPU (through the IDE controller) and an IDE/ATA device.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/pio


The Framebuffer is a part of RAM in a computer allocated to hold the graphics information for one frame or picture. This information typically consists of color values for every pixel on the screen. A framebuffer is either:

  • Off-screen, meaning that writes to the framebuffer don't appear on the visible screen
  • On-screen, meaning that the framebuffer is directly coupled to the visible display

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/framebuffer


POST (Power On Self Test) is a test to check that devices the computer will rely on are functioning, and initializes devices.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/booting


I2C - Inter-Integrated-Circuit, a bidirectional 2-wire bus for efficient inter-IC control. See 'http://www.esacademy.com/faq/i2c/index.htm' for more info.

Code examples(?): ...


VID - Vendor ID, a way of identifying the hardware manufacturer. See 'http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/bus/PCI/infreq.mspx' and 'http://pciids.sourceforge.net/' for more info.

A way of obtaining info for your hardware is through the 'lspci' command. Simply type 'lspci -n' in the console (or an xterm) or 'lspci -vn' for more verbose output.


DID - Device ID, a way of identifying the hardware in question. See VID (above) for more info.


DMA (Direct Memory Access) allows certain hardware subsystems within a computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the main CPU. Examples of systems that use DMA: Hard Disk Controller, Disk Drive Controller, Graphics Card, Sound Card. DMA is an essential feature of all modern computers, as it allows devices of different speeds to communicate without subjecting the CPU to a massive interrupt load.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/direct%20memory%20access


RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access) is a concept whereby two or more computers communicate via DMA directly from main memory of one system to the main memory of another.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Remote%20Direct%20Memory%20Access


The purpose of the VGAcon (VGA controller) is to isolate the details of VGA signal generation from all the other modules in a (hardware) design. It allows the pixel information to be written into its video memory using a very simple interface, while it is alone responsible for generating the required signals for displaying the pixel information on a VGA monitor. (Note: This is mostly relevant to a hardware design - the text is copied from a students fpga project)

http://www.eecg.utoronto.ca/~singhd/241/vgacon.htm


AHCI (Advanced Host Controller Interface). Describes the register-level interface for a SATA host controller.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ahci http://www.intel.com/technology/serialata/ahci.htm


OHCI (Open Host Controller Interface). IEEE1394 (Firewire) and USB standard (mostly used by other companies than Intel)

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/ohci http://developer.intel.com/technology/1394/download/ohci_11.htm


UHCI (Universal Host Controller Interface). USB standard.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/dict.asp?Word=uhci http://developer.intel.com/technology/usb/uhci11d.htm


SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface Bus) is a very loose standard for controlling almost any digital electronics that accepts a clocked serial stream of bits.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Serial%20Peripheral%20Interface http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Peripheral_Interface_Bus


SIO (Serial Input/Output)

http://www.acronymfinder.com/af-query.asp?String=off&Acronym=sio&Find=Find&sourceid=mozilla-search


PIC (Programmable Interrupt Controller) is a device to control peripheral devices, offloading the main CPU.

http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=programmable%20interrupt%20controller


PLL (Phase Locked Loop) is a device to keep (electrical) signals synchronised throughout the system.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PLL


SuperIO is the chip that provides floppy, serial and parallel functionality/ports.

http://www.simtec.co.uk/products/EB7500ATX/files/EB7500ATX-mmap.html


SPD (Serial Presence Detect). On every (?) memory module there's an eprom that provides BIOS with information on how to properly configure the memory module.

http://www.simmtester.com/page/news/showpubnews.asp?num=101


SMBus (System Management Bus) is a simple two-wire bus used for communication with low-bandwidth devices on a motherboard. It is based on (actually a subset of) I2C.

http://www.smbus.org/ http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=System%20Management%20Bus See I2C for more info.


ACPI (Advanced Configuration & Power Interface) is an industry standard for letting the OS control power management.

http://www.acpi.info/ http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=Advanced%20Configuration%20and%20Power%20Interface


APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller). An advanced version of a PIC that can handle interrupts from and for multiple CPUs.

http://www.computer-dictionary-online.org/index.asp?q=Advanced%20Programmable%20Interrupt%20Controller http://osdev.berlios.de/pic.html


VMEBus (VERSAmodule Eurocard Bus OR Versa Module Europa Bus). A computer bus originally developed for the Motorola 68000.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/VMEbus


PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect).

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/PCI


PCI Configuration Space.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/PCI%20Configuration%20Space


PIRQ (Pci IRQ routing table).

http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/archive/pciirq.mspx http://www.rojakpot.com/default.aspx?location=8&var1=0&var2=148 http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/jul04/articles/qa0704-1.htm Interesting tool?: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/attachment.cgi?id=93717&action=view


PAM (Programmable Attribute Map).



SMM


SMRAM (System Management Random Access Memory).



MPTable (Multi Processor Table). Intel MP specification is a hardware compatibility guide for machine hardware designers and OS software writers to produce SMP-capable machines and OSes in a vendor-independent manner. v1.1 and v1.4 versions exist.

http://www.uruk.org/~erich/mps.html http://www.intel.com/design/pentium/datashts/242016.htm



PIR



DCR (Decode Control Register)