Difference between revisions of "Payloads"

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=== Bootloaders ===
 
=== Bootloaders ===
  
==== GRUB2 ====
+
==== SeaBIOS ====
  
[[GRUB2]] is the standard bootloader for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.
+
[[SeaBIOS]] is an open-source implementation of the standard bootstrap callback layer implemented by an x86 BIOS. It enables booting from unmodified CDROMs and hard drives.
  
You can use GRUB2 as a coreboot payload, too, in order to boot and operating system from a hard drive, for instance.
+
SeaBIOS has been tested with Linux, NetBSD, OpenBSD, FreeDOS, and Windows XP/Vista/7. Classic GRUB, lilo, and isolinux work well with SeaBIOS. Other x86 bootloaders and operating systems will likely also work.
  
==== FILO ====
+
==== GRUB 2 ====
  
[[FILO]] is a simple bootloader with filesystem support.
+
You can use [[GRUB2]] as a coreboot payload, in order to boot an operating system from a hard drive, for instance. You can also boot via an existing GRUB2 on your hard drive by using [[SeaBIOS]] as your coreboot payload.
  
It will be deprecated in favor of [[GRUB2]] soon.
+
[[Payloads#GRUB_legacy|GRUB legacy]] is not suitable as coreboot payload, though.
  
==== Etherboot ====
+
==== GRUB legacy ====
 +
 
 +
The old GRUB 1 (a.k.a. "GRUB legacy") cannot be directly used as a coreboot payload.
 +
 
 +
However, you can use [[SeaBIOS]] as payload which allows you to boot any OS via a GRUB legacy you might still have installed on your harddrive.
 +
 
 +
==== FILO ====
 +
 
 +
[[FILO]] is a simple bootloader with filesystem support. It can boot from hard drives (among others), and does not require any legacy BIOS callbacks (unlike [[Payloads#GRUB_legacy|GRUB legacy]], for example).
 +
 
 +
==== Etherboot / GPXE / iPXE ====
  
 
[[Etherboot]] is a network bootloader. It provides a direct replacement for proprietary PXE ROMs, with many extra features such as DNS, HTTP, iSCSI, etc.
 
[[Etherboot]] is a network bootloader. It provides a direct replacement for proprietary PXE ROMs, with many extra features such as DNS, HTTP, iSCSI, etc.
Line 23: Line 33:
 
Older versions of Etherboot included parts of [[FILO]], and thus supported SATA and USB booting.
 
Older versions of Etherboot included parts of [[FILO]], and thus supported SATA and USB booting.
  
The new [[GPXE]] is not yet supported, various code changes are required before it can work with coreboot.
+
The new [[GPXE]] is not yet supported directly, various code changes are required before it can work as a coreboot payload. However, GPXE works well when run with [[SeaBIOS]].
 +
 
 +
[[iPXE]] is a fork of [[GPXE]] with some of the original developers. iPXE is more active nowadays.
  
 
==== Open Firmware ====
 
==== Open Firmware ====
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==== OpenBIOS ====
 
==== OpenBIOS ====
  
[[OpenBIOS]] — IEEE1275-1994 Open Firmware.
+
[[OpenBIOS]], an open-source IEEE1275-1994 Open Firmware implementation, is also usable as a coreboot payload.
 +
 
 +
==== Tiano Core ====
 +
 
 +
[[Image:Tianocoreboot.png|160px|right]]
 +
 
 +
[[TianoCore]] is a bootloader providing the UEFI interface.
 +
 
 +
<br clear="all" />
  
 
=== Operating systems ===
 
=== Operating systems ===
Line 37: Line 57:
 
==== Linux ====
 
==== Linux ====
  
Coreboot can use a [http://www.kernel.org Linux] kernel as payload directly. That is, the kernel is included in the ROM chip where coreboot resides.
+
coreboot can use a [http://www.kernel.org Linux] kernel as payload directly. That is, the kernel is included in the ROM chip where coreboot resides.
  
Alternatively, you can also boot a Linux kernel from your hard drive using either the [[FILO]] or [[GRUB2]] payloads, of course.
+
Alternatively, you can also boot a Linux kernel from your hard drive using either the [[FILO]], [[GRUB2]], or [[SeaBIOS]] payloads.
  
 
==== FreeBSD ====
 
==== FreeBSD ====
  
[[Booting FreeBSD using coreboot|FreeBSD]] can be booted via coreboot with the help of [[ADLO]].
+
[[FreeBSD]] can be booted via coreboot using [[SeaBIOS]] or [[GRUB2]].
  
 
==== OpenBSD ====
 
==== OpenBSD ====
  
[http://openbsd.org/ OpenBSD] can also be booted via coreboot with the help of [[ADLO]].
+
[http://openbsd.org/ OpenBSD] can also be booted via coreboot using [[SeaBIOS]] or [[GRUB2]].
  
 
This use-case is not well-tested yet, though.
 
This use-case is not well-tested yet, though.
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==== NetBSD ====
 
==== NetBSD ====
  
[http://www.netbsd.org/ NetBSD]/x86 boot code is known to work with [[SeaBIOS]].
+
[http://www.netbsd.org/ NetBSD]/x86 boot code is known to work with [[SeaBIOS]] or [[GRUB2]].
  
[[User:Jakllsch|jakllsch]] has worked on a partially-complete port of the x86 boot code to the role of native payload. However, with the advent of [[SeaBIOS]], this is likely to become less of a priority. Consult [[Coreboot and NetBSD]] for further information.
+
[[User:Jakllsch|jakllsch]] has worked on a partially-complete port of the x86 boot code to the role of native payload. However, with the advent of [[SeaBIOS]], this is likely to become less of a priority. Consult the [[NetBSD]] wiki page for further information.
 +
 
 +
==== FreeDOS ====
 +
 
 +
[[FreeDOS]] can be booted via coreboot using [[SeaBIOS]].
  
 
==== Windows ====
 
==== Windows ====
  
[[Booting Windows using coreboot|Windows]] can be booted with the help of [[ADLO]].
+
[[Booting Windows using coreboot|Windows]] can be booted with the help of [[SeaBIOS]].
  
This use-case is not well-tested yet, though.
+
We have successfully booted Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 (Beta).
  
 
==== OpenSolaris ====
 
==== OpenSolaris ====
  
[[OpenSolaris]] has multiboot compliant kernels, and so it is possible to boot it with GRUB2 (pending some bug fixes).
+
[[OpenSolaris]] has multiboot compliant kernels, and so it is possible to boot it with [[GRUB2]].
Some Sun engineers even worked on it, see http://bugs.opensolaris.org/bugdatabase/view_bug.do?bug_id=6475349 for information.
+
  
Currently, GRUB2 refuses to load the kernel due to a small bug in the multiboot header of the kernel, but the kernel still refuses to
+
See also [http://blogs.sun.com/szhou/entry/booting_solaris_from_linuxbios this blog entry] (somewhat outdated).
work if that is worked around. Maybe they reintroduced some BIOS calls again?
+
 
+
See also [http://blogs.sun.com/szhou/entry/booting_solaris_from_linuxbios this blog entry].
+
  
 
=== Other ===
 
=== Other ===
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It can be run from within GRUB, but also as a coreboot payload (i.e. included in your ROM chip).
 
It can be run from within GRUB, but also as a coreboot payload (i.e. included in your ROM chip).
  
 +
'''Note:''' Current versions of memtest86 may not work anymore due to changes in coreboot. A patch is being worked on.
 +
 +
 +
[[Memtest86+]] is based on memtest86, but provide more up-to-date version of this useful tool.
 +
 +
Current version Memtest86+ v4.20 can be run from within GRUB or as a coreboot payload.
 
<br clear="all" />
 
<br clear="all" />
  
 
==== ADLO ====
 
==== ADLO ====
  
[[ADLO]] &mdash; Glue layer to 16-bit Bochs BIOS. Allows [[Booting Windows using coreboot|booting Windows]] and [http://openbsd.org/ OpenBSD].
+
<div style="color:red">
 +
'''Note:''' ADLO has been superseded by [[SeaBIOS]]. Do not use it anymore.
 +
</div>
  
==== SeaBIOS ====
+
Glue layer to 16-bit Bochs BIOS. Allows [[Booting Windows using coreboot|booting Windows]] and [http://openbsd.org/ OpenBSD].
 
+
[[SeaBIOS]] (previously known as '''LegacyBIOS''') is an open-source implementation of a legacy BIOS which can also be used as coreboot payload.
+
  
 
==== Libpayload ====
 
==== Libpayload ====
Line 107: Line 133:
 
[[Image:Bayou-screenshot-menu.jpg|160px|right]]
 
[[Image:Bayou-screenshot-menu.jpg|160px|right]]
 
[[Bayou]] is the working name for a coreboot payload that can choose, load and run other payloads from a LAR archive on the ROM.
 
[[Bayou]] is the working name for a coreboot payload that can choose, load and run other payloads from a LAR archive on the ROM.
 +
 +
'''Note:''' Bayou may no longer be in a working state right now, it may or may not be fixed and worked on again. In the meantime, [[SeaBIOS]] and [[GRUB2]] also provide a mechanism to include multiple payloads in a ROM image and select either of them at boot-time.
 
<br clear="all" />
 
<br clear="all" />
 +
 +
==== nvramcui ====
 +
 +
Nvramcui is a coreboot payload which can modify the nvram contents.
 +
It lives at payloads/nvramcui in the coreboot repository.
 +
<br clear="all" />
 +
===== Example on the X60 =====
 +
Mediawiki converted the lines to ???, in reality they are lines on serial and on the display.
 +
??coreboot configuration utility????????????????????????????????????????????????
 +
?                                                                              ?
 +
???Press F1 when done??????????????????????????????????????????????????        ?
 +
?? boot_option          Normal                                        ?        ?
 +
??                                                                    ?        ?
 +
?? last_boot            Fallback                                      ?        ?
 +
??                                                                    ?        ?
 +
?? baud_rate            115200                                        ?        ?
 +
??                                                                    ?        ?
 +
?? debug_level          Spew                                          ?        ?
 +
??                                                                    ?        ?
 +
?? hyper_threading      Enable                                        ?        ?
 +
??                                                                    ?        ?
 +
?? nmi                  Disable                                      ?        ?
 +
??                                                                    ?        ?
 +
?? boot_devices        ?^A                                          ?        ?
 +
??                                                                    ?        ?
 +
?? boot_default        12249791007108694080                          ?        ?
 +
??                                                                    ?        ?
 +
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????        ?
 +
?                                                                              ?
 +
?                                                                              ?
 +
?                                                                              ?
 +
?                                                                              ?
 +
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
 +
 +
==== Depthcharge ====
 +
* [http://review.coreboot.org/gitweb?p=depthcharge.git;a=summary depthcharge] is a payload for the [[Chromebooks|Chromebooks]]
 +
 +
==== Uboot ====
 +
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Das_U-Boot The u-boot bootloader] can be configured as a [http://git.denx.de/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi?p=u-boot.git;a=tree;f=board/chromebook-x86;h=66bce36a73aad27d2599a0998bbe2f43aaf2701d;hb=HEAD coreboot payload for the chromebooks]
 +
 +
==== Explorer ====
 +
* [http://review.se-eng.com/gitweb?p=coreboot.git;a=tree;f=payloads/explorer;h=4f98db55d253ab0a10a12bf2b44b733c5eed13a7;hb=HEAD The explorer payload] is a payload for the [http://review.se-eng.com/gitweb?p=coreboot.git;a=tree;f=src/mainboard/gizmosphere/gizmo;h=e8b2f7b14b7c1691fb1e5c992dd3a89ab6332e4a;hb=HEAD Gizmosphere's Gizmo] (not merged yet into coreboot)
  
 
=== Games ===
 
=== Games ===
Line 115: Line 185:
 
[[Image:Coreboot invaders.png|160px|right]]
 
[[Image:Coreboot invaders.png|160px|right]]
  
[[GRUB invaders]] multi-boot compliant ''space invaders'' game.
+
[[GRUB invaders]] is a multi-boot compliant ''space invaders'' game.
  
 
It can either be started from within GRUB (as a "kernel"), or it can be used as a coreboot payload.
 
It can either be started from within GRUB (as a "kernel"), or it can be used as a coreboot payload.
Line 132: Line 202:
  
 
* CodeGen's [http://www.openbios.org/SmartFirmware SmartFirmware] &mdash; IEEE1275-1994 Open Firmware  
 
* CodeGen's [http://www.openbios.org/SmartFirmware SmartFirmware] &mdash; IEEE1275-1994 Open Firmware  
* [http://www.gnu.org/software/gnufi/ GNUFI] (UEFI)
+
* Plan 9 &mdash; A distributed operating system.
* [[Plan 9]] &mdash; A distributed operating system.
+
* RedBoot / eCos &mdash; Real-time OS for embedded systems; initial port to ELF completed but no longer available.
* [[RedBoot]] / eCos &mdash; Real-time OS for embedded systems; initial port to ELF completed but no longer available.
+
* GPXE &mdash; Needs some code changes
+
 
* HelenOS
 
* HelenOS
* ReactOS
+
* [http://www.reactos.org/ ReactOS]
* FreeDOS
+
 
* DragonflyBSD
 
* DragonflyBSD
 
* MirBSD
 
* MirBSD
 
* MidnightBSD
 
* MidnightBSD
* OpenSolaris / BeleniX
 
 
* FreeRTOS
 
* FreeRTOS
 
* QNX
 
* QNX
Line 149: Line 215:
 
* NanoVM (small JVM)
 
* NanoVM (small JVM)
 
* uip / lwip (small TCP/IP stacks)
 
* uip / lwip (small TCP/IP stacks)
* MenuetOS
+
* [http://www.menuetos.net/ MenuetOS]
 +
* [http://kolibrios.org/ KolibriOS]
 
* Minix
 
* Minix
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
  
The payload was originally intended to be a Linux kernel stored in flash. Flash ROM growth rate was anticipated optimistically however, today there are not many mainboards that actually have enough flash ROM room for a kernel. 512KB can be seen here-and-there and a few boards come with 1MB. Recent kernels really want that MB, and then
+
The '''payload''' was originally intended to be a Linux kernel stored in flash. Flash ROM growth rate was anticipated optimistically however, and today there are not many mainboards that actually have enough flash ROM room for a kernel. 512KB can be seen here-and-there and a few boards come with 1MB or 2MB. Recent kernels really want at least 1MB, and then you'll only have room for 300-400 KB of initial ramdisk, which could be too small too, depending on the application.
you'll only have room for 300-400 KB of initial ramdisk, which could be too small too, depending on the application. During testing, a payload may also be downloaded via X-Modem from the serial debug console, saving flashing time.
+
 
+
So, other payloads are used; the two major ones are [[FILO]] (soon to be deprecated in favor of [[GRUB2]]) and [[Etherboot]] (soon to be deprecated in favor of [[GPXE]]). FILO loads a kernel from a filesystem on an IDE device and Etherboot loads a kernel from the network or from a filesystem on an IDE device.
+
  
If you're using FILO there is no Linux kernel until FILO loads it, and the kernel loaded by FILO (or Etherboot) can absolutely be the one you want to run in your system. Just set it up with the correct root and init commandline so that it can start init.
+
So, other payloads are used; the two major ones are [[FILO]] and [[SeaBIOS]]. Also have a look at [[GRUB2]] and [[Etherboot]] (soon to be deprecated in favor of [[GPXE]]).

Latest revision as of 07:22, 18 January 2014

coreboot in itself is "only" minimal code for initializing a mainboard with peripherals. After the initialization, it jumps to a payload.

Payloads

Bootloaders

SeaBIOS

SeaBIOS is an open-source implementation of the standard bootstrap callback layer implemented by an x86 BIOS. It enables booting from unmodified CDROMs and hard drives.

SeaBIOS has been tested with Linux, NetBSD, OpenBSD, FreeDOS, and Windows XP/Vista/7. Classic GRUB, lilo, and isolinux work well with SeaBIOS. Other x86 bootloaders and operating systems will likely also work.

GRUB 2

You can use GRUB2 as a coreboot payload, in order to boot an operating system from a hard drive, for instance. You can also boot via an existing GRUB2 on your hard drive by using SeaBIOS as your coreboot payload.

GRUB legacy is not suitable as coreboot payload, though.

GRUB legacy

The old GRUB 1 (a.k.a. "GRUB legacy") cannot be directly used as a coreboot payload.

However, you can use SeaBIOS as payload which allows you to boot any OS via a GRUB legacy you might still have installed on your harddrive.

FILO

FILO is a simple bootloader with filesystem support. It can boot from hard drives (among others), and does not require any legacy BIOS callbacks (unlike GRUB legacy, for example).

Etherboot / GPXE / iPXE

Etherboot is a network bootloader. It provides a direct replacement for proprietary PXE ROMs, with many extra features such as DNS, HTTP, iSCSI, etc.

Older versions of Etherboot included parts of FILO, and thus supported SATA and USB booting.

The new GPXE is not yet supported directly, various code changes are required before it can work as a coreboot payload. However, GPXE works well when run with SeaBIOS.

iPXE is a fork of GPXE with some of the original developers. iPXE is more active nowadays.

Open Firmware

Mitch Bradley's Open Firmware, an IEEE1275-1994 Open Firmware implementation, can also be used as coreboot payload.

OpenBIOS

OpenBIOS, an open-source IEEE1275-1994 Open Firmware implementation, is also usable as a coreboot payload.

Tiano Core

Tianocoreboot.png

TianoCore is a bootloader providing the UEFI interface.


Operating systems

Linux

coreboot can use a Linux kernel as payload directly. That is, the kernel is included in the ROM chip where coreboot resides.

Alternatively, you can also boot a Linux kernel from your hard drive using either the FILO, GRUB2, or SeaBIOS payloads.

FreeBSD

FreeBSD can be booted via coreboot using SeaBIOS or GRUB2.

OpenBSD

OpenBSD can also be booted via coreboot using SeaBIOS or GRUB2.

This use-case is not well-tested yet, though.

NetBSD

NetBSD/x86 boot code is known to work with SeaBIOS or GRUB2.

jakllsch has worked on a partially-complete port of the x86 boot code to the role of native payload. However, with the advent of SeaBIOS, this is likely to become less of a priority. Consult the NetBSD wiki page for further information.

FreeDOS

FreeDOS can be booted via coreboot using SeaBIOS.

Windows

Windows can be booted with the help of SeaBIOS.

We have successfully booted Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 (Beta).

OpenSolaris

OpenSolaris has multiboot compliant kernels, and so it is possible to boot it with GRUB2.

See also this blog entry (somewhat outdated).

Other

Memtest86 / Memtest86+

Qemu memtest.png

Memtest86 is a program which checks your RAM modules.

It can be run from within GRUB, but also as a coreboot payload (i.e. included in your ROM chip).

Note: Current versions of memtest86 may not work anymore due to changes in coreboot. A patch is being worked on.


Memtest86+ is based on memtest86, but provide more up-to-date version of this useful tool.

Current version Memtest86+ v4.20 can be run from within GRUB or as a coreboot payload.

ADLO

Note: ADLO has been superseded by SeaBIOS. Do not use it anymore.

Glue layer to 16-bit Bochs BIOS. Allows booting Windows and OpenBSD.

Libpayload

Libpayload is a helper-library for payload-writers.

Coreinfo

Coreinfo pci.png

coreinfo is a coreboot payload which can display various system information.

Bayou

Bayou-screenshot-menu.jpg

Bayou is the working name for a coreboot payload that can choose, load and run other payloads from a LAR archive on the ROM.

Note: Bayou may no longer be in a working state right now, it may or may not be fixed and worked on again. In the meantime, SeaBIOS and GRUB2 also provide a mechanism to include multiple payloads in a ROM image and select either of them at boot-time.

nvramcui

Nvramcui is a coreboot payload which can modify the nvram contents. It lives at payloads/nvramcui in the coreboot repository.

Example on the X60

Mediawiki converted the lines to ???, in reality they are lines on serial and on the display.

??coreboot configuration utility????????????????????????????????????????????????
?                                                                              ?
???Press F1 when done??????????????????????????????????????????????????        ?
?? boot_option          Normal                                        ?        ?
??                                                                    ?        ?
?? last_boot            Fallback                                      ?        ?
??                                                                    ?        ?
?? baud_rate            115200                                        ?        ?
??                                                                    ?        ?
?? debug_level          Spew                                          ?        ?
??                                                                    ?        ?
?? hyper_threading      Enable                                        ?        ?
??                                                                    ?        ?
?? nmi                  Disable                                       ?        ?
??                                                                    ?        ?
?? boot_devices         ?^A                                           ?        ?
??                                                                    ?        ?
?? boot_default         12249791007108694080                          ?        ?
??                                                                    ?        ?
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????        ?
?                                                                              ?
?                                                                              ?
?                                                                              ?
?                                                                              ?
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

Depthcharge

Uboot

Explorer

Games

GRUB invaders

Coreboot invaders.png

GRUB invaders is a multi-boot compliant space invaders game.

It can either be started from within GRUB (as a "kernel"), or it can be used as a coreboot payload.


TINT

Coreboot libpayload tint.png

tint is a falling blocks game.

Possible future payloads

The following payloads might or might not work (with more or less changes required) with coreboot — their usage hasn't been tested or documented so far.

  • CodeGen's SmartFirmware — IEEE1275-1994 Open Firmware
  • Plan 9 — A distributed operating system.
  • RedBoot / eCos — Real-time OS for embedded systems; initial port to ELF completed but no longer available.
  • HelenOS
  • ReactOS
  • DragonflyBSD
  • MirBSD
  • MidnightBSD
  • FreeRTOS
  • QNX
  • Windows CE
  • Haiku
  • NanoVM (small JVM)
  • uip / lwip (small TCP/IP stacks)
  • MenuetOS
  • KolibriOS
  • Minix

History

The payload was originally intended to be a Linux kernel stored in flash. Flash ROM growth rate was anticipated optimistically however, and today there are not many mainboards that actually have enough flash ROM room for a kernel. 512KB can be seen here-and-there and a few boards come with 1MB or 2MB. Recent kernels really want at least 1MB, and then you'll only have room for 300-400 KB of initial ramdisk, which could be too small too, depending on the application.

So, other payloads are used; the two major ones are FILO and SeaBIOS. Also have a look at GRUB2 and Etherboot (soon to be deprecated in favor of GPXE).